Definition :

Hemiplegia is a condition in which half of a body is paralyzed. Hemiplegia is more severe than hemiparesis, wherein one half of the body is weakened but not paralysed. Hemiplegia may be congenital or acquired from an illness or stroke.

Causes :

cerebrovascular accident or stroke, spinal cord injury, Brown-Séquard syndrome, traumatic brain injury.
Common causes by etiology

• Vascular : Cerebral hemorrhage, stroke, diabetic neuropathy
• Infective : encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess
• Neoplastic : Glioma-meningioma 
• Demyelination : Disseminated sclerosis, lesions to the internal capsule
• Traumatic : Cerebral lacerations, subdural hematoma rare cause of hemiplegia is due to local anaesthetic

   injections given intra-arterially rapidly, instead of given in a nerve branch.

• Congenital : Cerebral palsy 
• Disseminated : Multiple sclerosis 
• Psychological : Parasomnia (nocturnal hemiplegia)

Symptoms :

• Difficulty speaking and/or or understanding words, which is known as aphasia 
• Difficulty swallowing 
• Difficulty walking 
• Problems with balance, known as ataxia 
• Difficulty using arms to dress, feed self, or perform other tasks 
• Visual impairments, including blurred vision 
• Urinary incontinence, the inability to control urination, or bowel incontinence, the inability to hold stool 
• decreased sensation, numbness, or tingling on affected side of the body 
• Memory loss 
• Difficulty dealing with frustrations

Physiotherapy :

1. Range of motion exercises
2. muscle stretching
3. muscle strengthening
4. Balancing exercises
5. positioning
6. cold application
7. neutral warmth
8. passive movements
9. weight bearing exercises
10. Functional electrical stimulation
11 .PNF techniques